Kojic Acid – Depigmenting agent that inactivates tyrosinase by chelation reaction, blocking melanin synthesis responsible for pigment spots.
Arbutin – One of the most potent actives that reduces tyrosinase activity and therefor the production of melanin.
Niacinamide – Lightening agent that inhibits the transfer of melanosomes. It is also known as Vitamin B3 and Vitamin PP and helps to decrease the appearance of skin redness.
Salicylic and Mandelic Acids – BHA and AHA that reduces intercorneocyte cohesion by destroying lipids that binds the outer cells of epidermis with their keratolytic properties.